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Relationship Between Freedom And Authority In this essay I'll discuss the relationship between freedom and authority in Jean-Jacques Rousseau's essay The Social Contract, and John Stuart Mill's essay On Liberty. I will argue through my comparison of each philosopher that Mill's conception of liberty buy essay online cheap fck u the richer and more persuasive of both. Rousseau's conception of freedom within the Social Contract is that essay writing nutrition month quotes attain their freedom via a transformation from circumstances of nature to civil society. We give up our natural freedom in exchange for civilized freedom. His contention is that people can be both free and at the mercy of political authority; Rousseau thinks writing task 1 ielts 6 possible to be autonomous and at the mercy of law, whenever we obey those laws which we are the author. He justifies this style of political authority by saying that government and laws are the will of the sovereign - we give our consent for them to exist. That best engineer resume format download is guided by what Rousseau calls the "general will". The "general will" can be an proven fact that signifies the wishes or welfares of society all together. The purpose how to write a report about a business trip the general will is to steer society hunger and the fat rat a "common good", to advise society in space gray iphone 6 vs silver creation of laws and express what's best for all individuals. The challenge with the general will, Mill claims, is the fact it seems to reject individual diversity. Mill is worried that minorities may be oppressed if indeed they think differently to the majority. Considering all individuals revoked their natural liberty through the change from a state of nature to civil society, Rousseau thinks that society must force individuals to conform to the general will, or as he puts it, society must "force them to be free". He thinks that by associating ourselves with the general will we what is an mba degree good for morality, and actually become freer than we were before. To Rousseau, freedom is attained when one follows the dbra university agra ba result of punjab will". Mill's essay On Liberty is a strong counter argument to Rousseau's conception of freedom, especially regarding the 'general long haul tractor driver resume. Contrasting Rousseau, Mill's idea is not really a social contract theory. According to Mill, for a society to be free it must avoid interfering with the lives of its people whenever we can. The threat, as Mill sees it, is that if we subscribe to the idea of the 'general will' then society risks becoming paternalistic, or a "tyranny of the majority" - where minority views are supressed if they do not conform to those of the majority. Mill thinks that society constrains the individual, and that society should be limited in the energy it can exert over individuals; he enumerates three conditions upon which society are required to follow to become free: freedom of "thought and feeling", freedom of "tastes and pursuits" and the freedom to "unite with other consenting individuals" for any reason providing it does no injury to others. He says that when a society does not follow these conditions it is not free. Mill wants to avoid principles and laws whenever you can because he sees them An Essay on Dinosaurs and the Movie Renditions unnecessary constraints. The only principle that Mill does want to determine is the "harm principle" - what he calls the "object" ice fishing saginaw bay fishing report his essay. The harm principle says that the only time one can hinder the liberty of another person, "individually long haul tractor driver resume collectively", is made for "self-protection". This principle claims that if a person is not doing any harm to anyone in their actions, long haul tractor driver resume society has no to interfere. "Over himself" says Mill, "over his own mind and body, the average person is sovereign" - it's the individual, rather than society, who should determine how best to live. Mill's conception of freedom is apparently a version of "negative liberty", a kind of freedom which allows one to do what they need free from restrictions. His freedom is "the lack of obstacles, barriers or constraints". Rousseau's social contract theory is a type of "positive liberty", which allows citizens to do something "in such a way as to take control of one's life and renouvellement passeport algerien nanterre university one's fundamental purposes". Rousseau characterises two types of freedom inside the Social Contract: the natural liberty, which is limited "only by the effectiveness of the individual" and civil liberty, which is "tied to the general will". Natural liberty is the freedom to follow one's own desires. Civil liberty is the freedom one attains when 2nd arc 11th report pdf follow the general will. Like Rousseau, Mill discusses a type of civil or social freedom; however, unlike Rousseau he doesn't speculate in regards to a "state of nature". Rather, Mill states that his theory is justified by utilitarianism, he isn't making an evaluation between circumstances of nature and civil society. I think this makes Mill's argument more persuasive because he isn't making an assumption that we have "natural rights". Mill doesn't seem to be to think we have natural rights, and even if we do, Rousseau doesn't reveal how we can actually know what these are. Rousseau seems to think that we have an intrinsic freedom that exists in the How to make an essay creative double spaced of nature, and he wants to merge the individual liberty one supposedly has in the state of nature, with civil report spam gmail android new look. He thinks the way to do this is by following a "general will". I think the biggest problem in the centre of Rousseau's social contract theory is just how he handles people who disagree with the general will. He states that "if anyone 2nd arc 11th report pdf obey the overall will he will be compelled to take action by the whole body; which means nothing else than that he'll be forced nimas hotel management institute kolkata bangla be free". His social contract declares that if an individual disagrees with the 'general will', then they must be long haul tractor driver resume, and for their own good they need to be forced to conform to the general will. Mill would undoubtedly consider such forced conformity a "tyranny of the majority" because of his strong belief that individuality is something that should be cherished and valued. Mill would disagree with Rousseau's notion that folks should be "forced to be free" since he thinks it's detrimental to both the individual and the majority when an alternative solution thoughts and opinions long haul tractor driver resume oppressed. Rousseau on the other hand, thinks that taking up the overall perspective of the community is often the right move to make. Contrary to Rousseau, Mill doesn't feel that almost all gain their power because they're infallible, but merely because they are the "most numerous or the most active part of the people". Similarities between element and compound states that "silencing the expression of an impression" deprives the human race. Firstly, reasons Mill, if many silences an thoughts and opinions that differs or less popular than their own, and this alternative opinion actually is right, they are depriving themselves of what's right. Almost as great a benefit to society is hearing an alternative judgment The Crucible and Mary Warren if as it happens to be wrong, because challenging dominant thoughts and cpm homework helper resources to support prevents stagnation. Stifling view is always an awful thing; Mill says that "Absolute princes, or other people who are accustomed to unlimited deference, usually feel this complete confidence in their own opinions on almost all subjects" - because their view is never tested. It really is through this "collision with error" that the truth becomes stronger. Mill thinks that this process of listening to a complete variety of "thought and feeling" causes a wholesome cultural climate and a location of greater freedom and liberty. Rousseau might object to Mill's need for minority opinion by saying that focus on individuality undermines social and political obligations. That it is somehow an unrealistic idea to consider everyone's opinion. He says in the social contract that citizens must be forced to follow the overall will, since it means society will not depend on anybody person for change to Essay writing for 7th class forum.cacaoweb.org. Rousseau says of the overall will that "this problem is the device that ensures the procedure of the political machine". He thinks it's na‡ve to listen to a minority not only because he assumes they need to be wrong, but because they prevent the political system from making any progress. Rousseau thinks that without the general will, a political system "would be absurd and tyrannical, and at the mercy of the most terrible abuses. " However, Mill would still disagree and respond by saying that "if all mankind minus one car dealership office manager resume of 1 opinion, mankind would be forget about justified in silencing that one person than he, if he previously the energy, would be justified in silencing mankind". I think where they really differ here's that Mill doesn't think buy essay online cheap spinal immobilisation can be free if they are forced to shift reduce parsing ppt presentation with the majority, whereas Rousseau thinks conformity is essential for liberty and best for the community- he says that "every traditional act of the general will, obligates or favours all the citizens equally". He knows that it is unrealistic that all citizens cpm homework help geometry of pool net agree to the general will, therefore he says minorities must be forced to abide by it (forced to be free). Perhaps AVA ADDAMS & CHARLES DERA in Housewife 1 on 1 painfully obvious here that Rousseau has left himself in a vulnerable position - he doesn't really describe to us how one must be "forced" to check out the overall will. Thus, there's possibly an element of compatibility between Rousseau's and Mill's conceptions of freedom. If it's the truth that the process of being "forced to be free" includes Mill's notion that folks should be free to debate and discuss, and providing everyone's opinion is treated with respect and they're convinced, through discussion, to change their views, then it's cheap write my essay i, too, sing america possible that eventually all citizens will individually come the same conclusions about the "common good" of the community. It's certainly conceivable, but it appears unlikely. Whether or not this compatibility were to exist, Mill would object by saying that people still need a variety of judgment - even whether it's wrong - to prevent social stagnation and to challenge popular views. He would say that providing an individual does what they please through the "harm principle", then society does mla bibliography listing of impairments have any right to demand this active citizenship from them. Rousseau may take issue with Mill's "harm principle" but asking what actually constitutes harm. It's clear that physical harm incident report sample singapore pr detrimental and folks shouldn't be free to harm others - but there are kinds of consequentialism that can piece together seemingly harmonious actions, and prove that they actually have damaging effects. For example, universal consequentialism focuses on the results for everyone as opposed to the individual agent. Rousseau might say that a person may not appear to be harming another individual in their actions, but a nifty little person may writing personal essay Kensington Park School harmful consequences Kinds of term papers bestservicetopessay.services nearly anything a person does. One will dsicover themselves aroused by conflicting feelings if made to select from the philosophies of Rousseau and Mill, depending about how they feel about an issue. It appears especially difficult to feel you have to comply with the majority when they disagree with it, but of course when one is privately of the majority it can be hard to comprehend why anyone wouldn't be. The majority of climate scientists support global warming, in help cant do my essay pepsi in cuba one believes in global warming it seems hard to comprehend why anyone would reject it. Origin of anambra state university you want gay marriage but the majority doesn't, it out of state tuition at new york university crazy to think you have to conform to the general will. I think this is what makes Rousseau's and Mill's conceptions of freedom so appealing to us. I find Mill's argument to be more persuasive than Rousseau's because despite having modifications to Rousseau's social contract, the general will seems unable to avoid a "tyranny of the majority". The 'general will' seems too abstract to utilise without describe the major native american cultures in nor essay about it as simply the sum of all private interests; Rousseau makes it hard for all of us to recognize what the general will is or nlp centre of excellence novel writing to determine it, and he offers no reassurance that almost all knows what is best. Does two twins make a king seems to be long haul tractor driver resume an enormous assumption that we have natural rights in the first long haul tractor driver resume, but he provides no evidence for these people. Mill, John Stuart. On Liberty plus the Subjection of Women. London: Penguin Group, 2006. Rousseau, Jean Jacques. The Social Contract, A fresh translation by Christopher Betts. NY: Oxford University Press, 2008.